German Expressionism and the Universal Horror Film


In the early 1930s Hollywood began producing a string of horror films with aims to simultaneously thrill, scare and provide a form of escapism for the Depression era American public. Whilst the horror genre was well received, critics often noted that the “rigid simplicity of the horror film’s conventions, deprives it of the resonances that inform and deepen, for example, the Western or Gangster film.” (Tudor, 1974). Due to this, analysis often focuses on the aesthetic details linking films together within the genre and the connotations that emerge through horror’s often stylised visuals. The visual and often thematic traits of horror’s early years were largely informed by German expressionism, and the output of Universal during the 1930s is a clear indicator of this.

Universal’s cycle of horror began with Tod Browning’s Dracula (1930) after Carl Laemmle junior gained charge of the studio at his father’s request. The following succession of…

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App Store, Gaming

Dressed to Ingress


Today saw the launch of Googles popular augmented reality app ‘Ingress’ on Apple’s app store. For those not familiar with the game, including to some extent myself, here’s a brief layout of the gameplay.

Players physically travel to specific areas displayed on the in game map called portals. Portals can be ‘hacked’ to obtain items and experience to aid in capturing more portals. Two factions exist within Ingress, The Enlightened and The Resistance. The plot revolves around the two faction’s battle over the control of a substance called Exotic Matter which The Enlightened believe will modify the human race for the better. There is a continuing narrative which I know nothing about as of yet so feel free to visit the website for more detail.


I have a friend staying with me for a few weeks before he moves into his new Uni residence. Let’s call him Paul because that’s his name. Paul first became immersed in the Ingress universe about 8 months ago. I frequently joke about his commitment and persistence towards the admittedly geeky game but I also cannot deny the health benefits Ingress can reward its loyal following. The augmented real time setting of the game does force actual physical demand upon you. This isn’t a passing time on the toilet app. Paul will frequently leave my house in the morning with particular objectives in mind and arrive back in the evening to later receive notification that his hard work is under attack from the opposition. Potentially frustrating but it’s all part of the fun. Travelling frequently by foot or bicycle in this recent British heat is obviously physically testing but in turn hardly a burden when absorbed within Ingress’ gameplay. (Please refer to Simulacrum‘s blog for some interesting statistics relating to Ingress’ audience). Think of all that Vitamin D! Other leading apps are likely causing a resurgence of rickets, but Ingress intuitively avoids this, offering gamers a chance to explore their local area and potentially interact with other players. Paul has been on many a group Ingress excursion, travelling and hacking through a surprisingly large area of Southern England.

Paul 'Hacking' at Fort Gillkicker in Gosport
Paul ‘Hacking’ at Fort Gillkicker in Gosport

The occasional moments of tension crop up between the rivalling factions, but from an outsider’s perspective it’s all rather comical. The rivalry’s harmless, usually resulting in a sour faced individual staring intently into his smartphone before shuffling off defeated. Right now i’m hearing Attenborough narrate this with his soothing wisdom.

So what impact will today’s iOS port have upon the Ingress community? Surely these Apple rookies will lose enthusiasm when their early conquests are thwarted by the experienced android community. It all remains to be seen. Despite my girlfriend’s mocking, I have downloaded the iOS port and Paul has given me a brief tour to up my level. The weather’s beautiful, I got some much needed exercise and dropped off some items at the post office. I can already see the benefits, lets see if it lasts. The Resistance Calls!




cinema, Film, Review

‘Stoker’ A Short Review

In the South Korean directors first English language film, Park Chan Wook intricately delves into the dark secrets behind the closed doors of high-society. From the title, one may suspect a modern take on the classic vampire story especially when considering Wook’s previous venture into this territory with 2009’s Thirst, but the only link appears to be an oppressive, gothic mood.
Instead Stoker offers a morbidly dark but beautifully realised coming-of-age tale from a director at the top of his game.

The script, penned by Wentworth Miller (Prison Break) introduces us to India Stoker (Mia Wasikowska), wealthy daughter to Evie (Nicole Kidman) and her recently deceased father (Dermot Mulroney). At her father’s wake India is introduced to her uncle Charlie, portrayed with unsettlingly subdued charm by Matthew Goode, who insists upon temporarily moving in to help out. India and her strong acuteness to the senses is suspicious of uncle Charlie and his increasing affections towards Evie , yet her investigations into her family lead to a chilling journey of self discovery.
Every frame of Stoker has been expertly crafted to amplify India’s heightened perceptions of her world. The uncomfortable close-ups of a spider at her feet or the transitions between the brushing of hair to the swaying of grass give insight into the sensitivity of this young girl finding her place in the world. Stoker could arguably work as a silent masterpiece but this would be denying ourselves of the meticulous sound design of the film. As sublime and perfectly composed the imagery is, Chuck Michaels sound design in my opinion defines Stoker. The first lines we hear are “My ears hear what others cannot hear.” and this is tastefully elaborated throughout. Tiny sounds are amplified above typical foley giving a curious air to the film but also expanding upon the films themes of discovery and looking beneath the surface of things.

Whilst Stoker lacks the fury of Wook’s classic Oldboy, it retains the stylish depictions of dread and violence ultimately rendering the film a horror but not in the way you would expect. I suppose that makes it all the more horrifying.

Any comments regarding feedback or suggestions for future blogs will be greatly appreciated.


ID’d at Argos: Living in Gosport

Gosport High Street
Gosport High Street

This morning I have migrated from Costa, after a pricey yet effective beverage, to the Gosport Discovery Centre. I haven’t been here before. There’s Wi-Fi. I came here intending to gather information on local events that may hold potential worth as future articles and it seems there’s plenty on offer. Apparently Gosport has a jazz club!

I have only lived in Gosport for a few years but that’s enough to become aware of its reputation. Neighbouring communities spout claims of crime and unemployment and there is some exaggerated truth to this.

A couple of weeks ago I rode into town to purchase some shears for the garden from Argos. The salesperson instantly demanded I show my ID due to recent accounts of ‘kids doing murdering’. With shears! Confused and lacking ID, I went to leave when the manager appeared and permitted the risky transaction. Clearly he believed I was old enough to partake in some ‘murdering’. I rode home like a botanical jouster, accomplished zero fatalities and proceeded to trim my borders.

I have obviously heard nothing of these suspected murders, but recent local media does dictate accounts of burglary, assault and indecent exposure. The UK crime stats website reveals that the vast majority of Gosport’s criminal activity is anti social behaviour with theft and violent crime also ranking fairly high. Comparatively, drug related crime is fairly low in spite of commonly voiced speculations.

I live fairly central within Gosport, an area depicted as substantially crime concentrated according to statistics. I personally have not witnessed any acts of crime since inhabiting the town but I do have a particular issue with my street. Walking to and from the Co-Op, i’m constantly kicking through rubbish and dog shit. It’s not a huge inconvenience, i’m no prude but I was still pleased to see a big fluorescent Littering Notice crop up on my street. Tragically, it was on the floor covered in dog shit.


Alver Valley
Alver Valley


Ask kids today why they’re such delinquent little turds and they’ll reply ‘there’s nothing to do’. Admittedly Gosport is the largest town in Britain lacking a train station, but this doesn’t create and hasn’t created a violent mass of isolated dullards. We receive more sunshine per annum than most of the UK and are never far from the (kind of dirty looking) sea. Naval history is rich and areas of conservation are genuinely pleasant, especially the newly spruced up Alver Valley. There’s plenty to do. My debut trip to the Discovery Centre further backs this up with it’s vast information on galleries, clubs, public gardens and beneficial volunteering opportunities.

To conclude, I like Gosport. There’s a jazz club.

The Old Gosport Ferry at Forton Creek
The Old Gosport Ferry at Forton Creek
cinema, Film

German Expressionism and the Universal Horror Film

In the early 1930s Hollywood began producing a string of horror films with aims to simultaneously thrill, scare and provide a form of escapism for the Depression era American public. Whilst the horror genre was well received, critics often noted that the “rigid simplicity of the horror film’s conventions, deprives it of the resonances that inform and deepen, for example, the Western or Gangster film.” (Tudor, 1974). Due to this, analysis often focuses on the aesthetic details linking films together within the genre and the connotations that emerge through horror’s often stylised visuals. The visual and often thematic traits of horror’s early years were largely informed by German expressionism, and the output of Universal during the 1930s is a clear indicator of this.

Universal’s cycle of horror began with Tod Browning’s Dracula (1930) after Carl Laemmle junior gained charge of the studio at his father’s request. The following succession of horror films were Universal’s attempt at staying afloat during the Depression which had been taking its toll on the industry. ‘The studio’s output decreased substantially, and during an industry-wide strike the studio actually closed down for several months.” (Cook & Bernink, 1999, p. 31). Laemmle junior agreed to produce Frankenstein (1931) partly due to the success of the previous year’s Dracula. Universal was in need of a specific generic identity within their company to ensure future exhibition, and the popularity of what was to become a chain of Universal Monster movies aided the minor studio in deciding on horror as its reliable product. This decision was financially beneficial not only in terms of exhibition and potential audience sales but also by means of production. The recent adoption of sound by studios could have proved to be a difficult transition during Universal’s period of financial trouble but producers discovered that subtle use of sound proved significantly cheaper yet chilling. Dracula is a good example of this as “the film’s relative ‘silence’ served to increase the chilling atmosphere.” (Cook & Bernink, 1999, p. 32).

With Universal’s house style firmly cemented by their resourcefulness during the Depression, the mid 1930s saw further additions to their monster roster. Werewolf of London was released in 1935, but more significantly a sequel to James Whale’s hugely successful Frankenstein (1931) rose from the studio to become an unforgettable horror classic. Bride of Frankenstein (1935) director James Whale (albeit initially somewhat reluctantly) and the majority of the original’s cast to continue its gothic tale of science and morality. With both Dr. Frankenstein and his monster surviving the blaze at the windmill, mad scientist Dr. Pretorious sees an opportunity to fulfil his own desires to create human life. When his wife is held ransom, Dr. Frankenstein reluctantly agrees to assist Pretorious in constructing a bride for the monster.
“Frankenstein (1931) was both an outstanding and typical product of 1930s Hollywood, particularly in its confident assimilation of German expressionist aesthetics on which horror’s ‘golden age’ was founded.” (Worland, 2006, p. 158). Its sequel builds upon this German expressionist technique utilising “Germanic lighting, set design and camerawork…to evoke bizarre, otherworldly settings as well as to connote an artistically ambitious production.” (p. 160). Whale studied key films of the German expressionist era running from 1920 to 1927 including Robert Weiner’s The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) and Nosferatu (1922), F.W Murnau’s take on the vampire tale. “The angular performances, heavy makeup, and distorted settings characteristic of German Expressionist cinema conveyed an ominous, supernatural atmosphere” (Bordwell & Thompson, 2008, p. 331) that transferred perfectly to Universal’s portrayals of gothic literary classics.

Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)
Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)

Bride of Frankenstein largely displays its influences through its set design. “In much the same way as the German Expressionists did a decade earlier, whale creates a new world on the soundstage.” (Weaver, 1990, p. 126). Cemeteries with slanted graves, gothic towers and windmills are all complemented by chiaroscuro lighting, canted framings and a variety of unusually high or low angles. (Worland, 2006, p. 160). Pam Cook states that this extreme stylisation of mise-en-scene through chiaroscuro lighting and surrealistic settings are specific features of German expressionist cinema and are often accompanied by similar acting styles and macabre subject matter. (Cook & Bernink, 1999, p. 67). Direct examples of this can be clearly seen in Bride of Frankenstein. “In the spectacular, two-minute creation sequence, consisting of over 80 shots, she comes to life amid the blazing electrical apparatus of Frankenstein’s mountaintop laboratory.” (Weaver, 1990, p. 125). Throughout the scene, canted angle shots create a sense of unease through their purposeful departure from standard cinematography techniques. Extreme low angles reveal the scale and warped architecture of the laboratory with its clashing lines mirroring the abnormalities of the scene’s content. Expressionist chiaroscuro lighting shrouds the scene with mystery whilst amplifying the obscure nature of Pretorious and Frankenstein as the light casts disfiguring shadows across their faces. “The style of German Expressionism allowed the filmmakers to experiment with filmic technology and special effects and to explore the twisted realm of repressed desires, unconscious fears, and deranged fixations.” (Perry, 2006, p. 57). The German visual style confidently informs Universal’s horror output, lending its aesthetic peculiarities to shape themes of fear and madness. Barry Langford states that expressionism’s influence “perhaps lay in the establishment less of a specific stylistic model than of a generic vocabulary that expressed extreme psychological states.” (Langford, 2005, p. 161). German expressionism grew out of a desire to filter the horrors of post war Germany in to a coherent medium. It created an ‘other world’ in which people could view and process the everyday troubles inflicted upon them. “This ‘other world’ often functions as a criticism of bourgeois society.” (Cook & Bernink, 1999, p. 67). Transferred to an american audience, the expressionist style also had a societal effect. “Depression audiences wanted the escapist entertainment which horror provided.” (Pendo, 1975, p. 161).

Whilst German expressionism clearly informed the ‘golden age’ of horror by means of aesthetic similarities, it could also be said that the deeper meanings and messages projected through expressionism also succeeded in informing Universal’s approach to film production. German expressionism channelled through films such as Bride of Frankenstein reflected many aspects of society apparent during the Depression. “The monsters were actually creatures with souls and human longings, that underneath the formula plots, these characters represented society’s rejects who were trying to stake a claim in a world in which they had no place.” (Weaver, 1990, p. 4). Even the mob in Frankenstein and Bride of Frankenstein could be likened to “an enraged populace lashing out in frustration against the Depression – and the man they perceived as indifferent to their plight, Herbert Hoover.” (Matthews, 2009, p. 33). Despite the aesthetic and thematic similarities, Universal succeeded in creating a series of unique cinema classics that whilst clearly informed by German expressionism, stand on their own as an advancement of Hollywood genre cinema and as a reflection of a nation emerging from financial struggle.


Bordwell, D., & Thompson, K. (2008). Film Art (8th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Bordwell, D., & Thompson, K. (2008). Film Art (8th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Cook, P., & Bernink, M. (Ed). (1999). The Cinema Book (2nd ed.). London: British Film Institute.

Langford, B. (2005). Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond. Edinburgh: University Press.

Matthews, M.E. (2009). Fear Itself: Horror on Screen and in Reality During the Depression and World War II. North Carolina: McFarland & Co Inc.

Pendo, S. (1975). Universal’s golden age of horror. Films in Review, 26 (3).

Perry, T. (2006). Masterpieces of Modernist Cinema. Indiana: University Press.

Tudor, A. (1974). Image and Influence: Studies in the Sociology of Film. London: Allen and Unwin.

Weaver, T., Brunas, M., & Brunas, J. (1990). Universal Horrors: The Studio’s Classic Films, 1931-1946 (2nd ed.). North Carolina: McFarland & Co Inc.

Worland, R. (2006). The Horror Film: An Introduction. New Jersey: Wiley – Blackwell.
Browning, T. (Director). (1931). Dracula [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Murnau, F.W. (Director). (1922). Nosferatu [Motion picture]. Germany: Film Arts Guild.

Walker, S. (Director). (1935). Werewolf of London [Motion picture]. United states: Universal Pictures.

Whale, J. (Director). (1935). Bride of Frankenstein [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures. https://www-muehlen.archive.org/download/TheBrideOfFrankenstein1935Trailer/TheBrideOfFrankensteinTrailer.mp4

Whale, J. (Director). (1931). Frankenstein [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Wiene, R. (Director). (1920). The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari [Motion picture]. Germany: Decla-Bioscop. https://www-muehlen.archive.org/download/DasKabinettdesDoktorCaligariTheCabinetofDrCaligari/The_Cabinet_of_Dr._Caligari.mpeg


Buying Lenses on a Budget

Whilst the ability to create professional looking video has become much more accessible over the past few years, many struggle to achieve a certain style or ‘cinematic’ look within their footage due to the cost factor of high end, modern lenses. Technological advances have lead to a dizzying quantity of professional lenses, each boasting to enhance your video quality and improve access to versatility, but for the majority of amateur filmmakers, the option to shop around for that perfect lens or combination of lenses is out of reach. This need not be the case. The uprise of popularity for DSLR cameras has opened up a vast opportunity for cost saving experimentation and quality simply due to the ease of compatibility with older lenses through use of adapters.

The Canon FD lens mount first appeared with the introduction of the Canon F-1 SLR camera back in 1971. The FD mount replaced the formerly used bayonet mount popular amongst other SLR brands and was instantly popular until production ceased in 1987 with the dawn of the now commonplace EF lenses. At a basic level the FD mount offered increased survivability of your precious lenses through the manner in which the lens attached to the camera. Entitled the breech-lock, this mechanism ensured minimal contact of areas susceptible to wear. The build quality of these early lenses were also superior, constructed out of durable metal giving them a reassuring weight. These factors made Canon’s FD lenses a popular choice for professional and amateur enthusiasts alike.

Panasonic GH2 with Canon FD 1.4
Panasonic GH2 with Canon FD 1.4

Whilst the step forward to auto-focus lenses was revolutionary, the use of the FD lenses is still a viable option. Despite being obsolete from production, they are easy to come across through sources such as e-bay or even at your local car-boot sales or charity shops at significantly lower prices than modern auto-focus lenses.

At the time of release FD lenses were deemed optically superior to many other brands and while perhaps not meeting standards of top end modern video lenses, they are still capable of capturing beautiful imagery. For the up and coming amateur filmmaker, the lack of auto-focus should not be a burden as it impels the user to become practiced in the methods of following focus and gives a more hands on approach that brings you closer to your film. Many will agree that it is often a wise choice to sacrifice a perhaps unnecessary function in favour of high quality optics when choosing between an older lens and entry level modern lenses.

134 different FD lenses were produced during its 21 years of production and obviously some will be more suited to your project than others, but a good place to start would be with a 50mm prime lens. The Canon FD 50MM 1.8 is a very common and reliable lens but if in search of something providing more in terms of shallow depth of field or night time capabilities then the Canon FD 50mm 1.4 can also be picked up for relatively cheap. One thing to bear in mind when adapting SLR lenses to a camera with a non 35mm sensor is that you will be effectively increasing your focal length. This may not be a problem for certain shots but it would still be wise to seek out an FD wide angle lens of 28 or 24 focal length to pose as your standard lens. Due to the low costs of these widely available lenses your options for experimentation are vast and if you are not happy with a particular lens then you are also not likely to lose out on money if you decide to resell.

Despite yielding very good quality for the price, FD lenses tend to become a bit ‘soft’ on the image with apertures wide open but if found at bargain prices they are definitely still worth a shot. Many videos can be found on youtube or vimeo displaying the quality of FD lenses mounted on modern cameras, so check them out and expand your options of experimentation on a budget!

Chad Wilkinson

First published in Digital Filmmaker Magazine: September 2013